Should TV Move?

Main Article Content

Giles Tanner
Jock Given https://orcid.org/

Keywords

Television, Digital Switchover, NBN, Wireless Broadband, Spectrum Auctions

Abstract

This article considers five options for the future of television transmission in Australia. We begin by describing the unprecedented threats to broadcast television’s business model and power. We then set out the global picture for terrestrial TV broadcasting and options for modernising the Australian system. We do this within a framework that asks what now constitutes “television”, because the services that viewers and users now treat as TV are broader than the subset that have carried most of the public policy freight for decades. The five options we consider are: first, do nothing much apart from adopting further improvements in compression technology; second, replace the current transmission system with a new, specialised terrestrial broadcast platform; third, migrate terrestrial TV to a direct-to-home satellite platform; fourth, move over-the-air TV online; fifth, design some sort of hybrid of Options 1 to 4. Finally, we arrive at some tentative conclusions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 82 | 348-PDF-v8n4pp1-36 Downloads 31

References

Australian Broadcasting Authority (ABA). (1997). Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting in Australia: Final report of the work of the ABA Specialist Group on Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting. Canberra: ABA.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2020). Australian Demographic Statistics, December 2019. 3101.0. Retrieved from https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/allprimarymainfeatures/D56C4A3E41586764CA2581A70015893E?opendocument
Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). (2010). Annual Report 2009–10. Canberra: ACMA. Retrieved from https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2010-12/apo-nid63024.pdf
Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). (2019a). Annual Report 2018–19. Canberra: ACMA. Retrieved from https://www.acma.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-04/Communications%20report%202018-19.pdf
Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). (2019b). Five-Year Spectrum Outlook 2019–23: The ACMA’s Spectrum Management Work Program. September 2019. Retrieved from https://www.acma.gov.au/sites/default/files/2019-09/Five-year%20spectrum%20outlook%202019-23.pdf
Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). (2020). Communications Report 2018–19. https://www.acma.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-04/Communications% 20report%202018-19.pdf
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC). (2019). Digital Platforms Inquiry: Final Report. Canberra: ACCC. Retrieved from https://www.accc.gov.au/publications/digital-platforms-inquiry-final-report
Australian Home Entertainment Distributors Association (AHEDA). (2019). 2018 Yearbook. Retrieved from https://www.aheda.com.au/yearbooks
Australian Mobile Telecommunications Association (AMTA). (2020). Submission to ACMA Five Year Spectrum Outlook, 2020–24. 25 June. Retrieved from https://www.acma.gov.au/consultations/2020-04/draft-five-year-spectrum-outlook-2020-24-consultation-092020
BIS. (2001). Telecommunication Infrastructures in Australia 2001. Melbourne: BIS Shrapnel. Retrieved from https://www.accc.gov.au/system/files/Telecommunication%20Infrastructures%20in%20Australia%202001.pdf
Broadband TV News (2018). EBU not worried about DTT shutdowns in Belgium and Switzerland. 20 December. Retrieved from https://www.broadbandtvnews.com/2018/12/20/ebu-not-worried-about-dtt-shutdowns-in-belgium-and-switzerland/
Broadcast Australia, TX Australia & Free TV (2019). Second phase of DVB-T2 trial commences. Media Release, BAI Communications, 11 March. Retrieved from https://www.baicommunications.com/news-views/mediarelease/second-phase-of-dvb-t2-trial-commences
Budde, P. (2012). The NBN TV reception fix. The Australian, 5 June. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/business-spectator/news-story/the-nbn-tv-reception-fix/c37dae1f044bd5e69d27883cb95e6a7e
Bunch, R. (2015). Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting in Australia: A Presentation to ITU International Symposium on the Digital Switchover. 17 June. Retrieved from https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/GE06-Symposium-2015/Session2/201%20%20Digital%20Terrestrial%20Television%20in%20Australia%20-%20ITU%20Symposium%20-%2017%20June%202015.pdf
Butts, T. (2019). Nielsen Sees “Resurgence” in OTA Households. 15 January. Retrieved from https://www.tvtechnology.com/news/nielsen-sees-resurgence-in-ota-households
Chapman, W. (2020a). Free-to-Air Television Broadcasting in Australia. Australia Industry (ANZSIC) Report J5621. IBISWorld, July.
Chapman, W. (2020b). Pay Television and Internet Protocol Television Services in Australia. Australia Industry (Specialized) Report OD5546. IBISWorld, May.
Christensen, J. (2009). Global Experience Industries. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press.
Department of Communications (DOC). (2015). Consultation paper: Digital Television Regulation. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/have-your-say/digital-television-regulation
Department of Communications and the Arts (DOCA). (2018a). Review of the Viewer Access Satellite Television (VAST) service—issues paper. May. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/documents/review-viewer-access-satellite-television-vast-service-issues-paper
Department of Communications and the Arts (DOCA). (2018b). Review of the Viewer Access Satellite Television (VAST) service—final report. December. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/documents/review-viewer-access-satellite-television-vast-service-final-report
Digital TV Status. (2017). [Global DTV standards uptake]. Last updated 28 June 2017. Retrieved from http://en.dtvstatus.net
Edgerton, J. (2018). ATS Rollout Can Begin Next Month. Multichannel News, 29 March. Retrieved from https://www.multichannel.com/news/atsc-30-rollout-can-begin-next-month-417861
European Commission (EC). (2015). Inception Impact Assessment: Union strategy for the future use of the UHF broadcasting band (470-790 MHz), including the 700 MHz band (694-790 MHz). Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/roadmaps/docs/2015_cnect_017_uhf_en.pdf
5G-Xcast. Accessed 31 October 2020. https://5g-xcast.eu/
Forum SBTVD. (2018). The Future of the Digital TV. Paper presented at ITU meeting Panama City, Panama, 7–11 May, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/terrestrial/broadcast/Americas/Documents/Presentations_Panama/ISDB-T.pdf
Free TV Australia. (2020). Next generation TV. Accessed 1 February 2020. Retrieved from https://www.freetv.com.au/what-we-do/technology-innovation/
Gibellino, D. (2019). How 5G will change your TV for good. Noteworthy, 341 January. Retrieved from https://blog.usejournal.com/how-5g-will-change-your-tv-for-good-96ad1e42eea2
Given, J. (2003). Turning off the Television: Broadcasting’s Uncertain Future. Sydney: UNSW Press.
Given, J. (2007). Switching off analogue TV. In A.T. Kenyon (ed.), TV Futures: Digital Television Policy in Australia (pp. 277–314). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Given, J. (2016). “There Will Still Be Television but I Don’t Know What It Will Be Called!”: Narrating the End of Television in Australia and New Zealand. Media and Communication, 4 (3), 109–122. Retrieved from https://www.cogitatiopress.com/mediaandcommunication/ article/view/561
Given, J. (2018). Did it work? An update on the costs and benefits of the transition to digital TV in Australia. International Journal of Digital Television, 9 (1), 43–52. Retrieved from https://doi.org/ 10.1386/jdtv.9.1.43_1
Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: NYU Press.
JVET—Joint Video Experts Team. (2020). Developing a video compression algorithm with capabilities beyond HEVC. ITU. Retrieved from https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/studygroups/2017-2020/16/Pages/video/jvet.aspx
Kalika, M. (2020). C31 wins 12 month extension. 6 July. Retrieved from https://c31.org.au/media-releases/c31-melbourne-wins-12-month-extension/
Kelly, V. (2020). News Corp’s advertising revenue falls over 50% in fourth quarter, as company posts US$1.5bn loss. Mumbrella, 7 August. Retrieved from https://mumbrella.com.au/news-corps-advertising-revenue-falls-over-50-in-fourth-quarter-as-company-posts-us1-5bn-loss-637768
Knott, M. (2016). Mark Scott's farewell idea: fewer channels, shared ABC, SBS transmission. Sydney Morning Herald, 22 February. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/mark-scotts-farewell-idea-fewer-channels-shared-abc-sbs-transmission-20160222-gn02c5.html
Krieger, J. (2019). SRG returns on DTT in Switzerland and Austria. Broadband TV News, 24 November. Retrieved from https://www.broadbandtvnews.com/2019/11/24/srg-returns-on-dtt-in-switzerland-and-austria/
Lamy, P. (2014). Results of the Work of the High Level Group on the Future Use of the UHF Band (470-790 MHz). 29 August. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/report-results-work-high-level-group-future-use-uhf-band
Lohman, T. (2010). Free-to-air TV over the NBN? Computerworld, 25 March. Retrieved from https://www.computerworld.com/article/3475198/free-to-air-tv-over-the-nbn.html
Long, T. (2018). Foxtel migrating all Cable TV customers to Satellite. EFTM. Retrieved from https://eftm.com/2018/03/exclusive-foxtel-migrating-all-cable-tv-customers-to-satellite-47580
McKenzie, B. (2019). Additional funding for regional satellite television service. Media Release. 3 January. Retrieved from https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/media/pressrel/6421320/upload_binary/6421320.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22media/pressrel/6421320%22
Mason, M. (2020). Free-to-air TV reaps big viewing boost. Australian Financial Review, 27 April, 31.
Mediaweek. (2020). SMI June: How Covid-19 devasted [sic] business as ad spend fell off a cliff. 4 August. Retrieved from https://www.mediaweek.com.au/smi-june-how-covid-19-devasted-business-as-ad-spend-fell-off-a-cliff/
Morsillo, R. & Barr, T. (2013). Innovation or disruption? The National Broadband Network comes to Australian TV. International Journal of Digital Television, 4(3), 239–260.
NBN. (2017). Video streaming: nbn will fuel the revolution. 28 March. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/blog/the-nbn-project/Video-streaming-nbn-will-fuel-the-revolution
NBN. (2019). Corporate Plan 2020-23. Melbourne: NBN. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/content/dam/nbnco2/2019/documents/media-centre/corporate-plan-report-2020-2023.pdf
NBN. (2020a). Australian Data Demand: new weekly report reveals growth in nbn data demand. 2 April. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/corporate-information/media-centre/media-statements/australian-data-demand
NBN. (2020b). How we’re tracking. 22 May. Accessed 22 May 2020. Retrieved from https://www2.nbnco.com.au/corporate-information/about-nbn-co/updates/dashboard-april-2020
NBN. (2020c) NBN Co extends additional capacity offer to internet retailers and targets low-income household measures. 4 September. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/corporate-information/media-centre/media-statements/nbn-extends-capacity-offer
NBN (2020d). Weekly Public Progress Report: National Broadband Network – Rollout Information. 3 September. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/content/dam/nbnco2/2019/documents/weekly-progress-report/Public_Progress_Data%20-%20030920.pdf
Negroponte, N. (1995). Being Digital. New York: Vintage Books.
OECD, Committee for Information, Computer and Communications Policy. (1996). Current Status of Communication Infrastructure Regulation Cable Television. Paris: Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=OCDE/GD(96)101&docLanguage=En
Ofcom. (2014). The Future of Free-to-View TV, a discussion document. London: Ofcom. 28 May. Retrieved from https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/32640/Future-of-Free-to-View-TV.pdf
Ofcom. (2020a). Media Nations 2020: UK Report. London: Ofcom. Retrieved from https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/200503/media-nations-2020-uk-report.pdf
Ofcom. (2020b). Small Screen: Big Debate–a five-year review of Public Service Broadcasting (2014–18). 27 February. London: Ofcom. Retrieved from https://www.smallscreenbigdebate.co.uk/what-is-ssbd/ssbd-five-year-review
Ozer, J. (2019). HEVC, AV1, VVC: How to Make Sense of 2019's World of Codecs. Streaming Media, 16 August. Retrieved from https://www.streamingmedia.com/Articles/Editorial/Featured-Articles/HEVC-AV1-VVC-How-to-Make-Sense-of-2019s-World-of-Codecs-133589.aspx
OzTAM, RegionalTAM & Nielsen. (2013). Australian Multi-Screen Report, Quarter 3, 2013. Sydney: OzTAM. Retrieved from https://oztam.com.au/documents/Other/Australian%20Multi-Screen%20Report%20Q3%202013_FINAL.pdf
OzTAM, RegionalTAM & Nielsen. (2017). Australian Multi-Screen Report, Quarter 4 2016. Sydney: OzTAM. Retrieved from OzTAM. https://oztam.com.au/documents/Other/Australian%20Multi%20Screen%20Report%20Q4%202016%20FINAL.pdf
Pearce, R. (2018). CDN failure compounded Optus’ FIFA World Cup woes. Computerworld, 20 June. Retrieved from https://www2.computerworld.com.au/article/642717/cdn-failure-compounded-optus-fifa-world-cup-woes/
Pennington, A. (2020). 5G: the transformation of video distribution is underway. Digital TV Europe, 21 April. Retrieved from https://www.digitaltveurope.com/longread/5g-the-transformation-of-video-distribution-is-underway/
Perez, S. (2019). Nielsen: 16M U.S. homes now get TV over-the-air, a 48% increase over past 8 years. Tech Crunch, 16 January. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2019/01/15/nielsen-16m-u-s-homes-now-get-tv-over-the-air-a-48-increase-over-past-8-years/
Quijada, D. F. (2020). TV distribution: looking ahead. tech-I, (43) March, 17. Retrieved from https://tech.ebu.ch/docs/tech-i/tech-i-043.pdf
Ritchie, H. & Roser, M. (2017). Technology Adoption. OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/technology-adoption
Roy Morgan. (2019). 14.5 million Australians already have Pay TV/Subscription TV as Disney+ enters the market. Roy Morgan, 2 December. Retrieved from http://www.roymorgan.com/findings/8218-netflix-foxtel-stan-pay-tv-oct-2019-201912020339
Roy Morgan. (2020a). Disney Plus attracts over 2 million in first 4 months. Roy Morgan, 22 May. Retrieved from https://www.roymorgan.com/findings/8418-disney-plus-passes-2-million-viewers-may-2020-202005221222
Roy Morgan. (2020b). Subscription TV viewers soar during Aussie lockdown - Netflix, Foxtel, Stan, Disney+ & Amazon Prime all up significantly. Roy Morgan, 21 July. Retrieved from http://www.roymorgan.com/findings/8472-subscription-pay-tv-services-may-2020-202007200704
Ryan P. (2018). Fairfax Media and News Corporation agree to share printing facilities to offset newspaper decline. ABC.net. 18 July. Retrieved from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-07-18/fairfax-and-news-corp-agree-to-share-printing-facilities/10007442
Samios, Z. (2020a). Government chases spectrum efficiency for TV signals. Sydney Morning Herald, 20 July. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/government-chases-spectrum-efficiency-for-tv-signals-20200719-p55ddk.html
Samios, Z. (2020b). Hawke-era “aggregation” brings regional broadcasters to their knees. Sydney Morning Herald, 3 August. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/business/companies/hawke-era-aggregation-brings-regional-broadcasters-to-their-knees-20200802-p55htj.html
Samios, Z. (2020c). Television audiences climb as Australians isolate. Sydney Morning Herald, 22 March. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/business/companies/television-audiences-climb-as-australians-isolate-20200322-p54cqm.html
Samios, Z. (2020d). Suitors line up to acquire TX Australia. Sydney Morning Herald, 22 June. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/business/companies/suitors-line-up-to-acquire-tx-australia-20200621-p554ph.html
SBS. (2015). Digital Television Regulation Consultation Paper. 8 April. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/sites/default/files/submissions/Special_Broadcasting_Service_SBS.pdf?acsf_files_redirect
Screen Australia. (2013). Patterns of screen media consumption 2005/06 to 2012/13, compiled by Screen Australia using Roy Morgan Single Source. Retrieved from https://www.screenaustralia.gov.au/fact-finders/people-and-businesses/audience-trends/media-participation-rates
Screen Australia. (2020). Top 50 Titles On Free-To-Air Television, Metro & Regional, 2008–2019. Retrieved from https://www.screenaustralia.gov.au/fact-finders/television/industry-trends/top-programs
Seven West Media. (2020). Annual Report 2020. Perth: SWM. Retrieved from https://www.sevenwestmedia.com.au/assets/pdfs/2020-SWM-Annual-Report2.pdf
Siebert, P. (2019). How DVB-T2 And ATSC 3.0 Stack Up: Technical Benefits, Limitations And Real-World Deployments. 3 June. Retrieved from https://www.tvtechnology.com/opinions/how-dvb-t2-and-atsc-3-0-stack-up-technical-benefits-limitations-and-real-world-deployments
Tanner, G. (2013). The “digital dividend” as a case study in spectrum re-farming, Telecommunications Journal of Australia, 63(1), Article 391. Retrieved from https://telsoc.org/journal/tja-v63-n1/a391
Tanner, G. (2018). Speech delivered at RadComms 21 September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.acma.gov.au/publications/2018-10/speech/giles-tanner-radcomms-2018
Telstra Corporation. (2020). Submission to ACMA Five Year Spectrum Outlook, 2020–24. 24 June. Retrieved from https://www.acma.gov.au/consultations/2020-04/draft-five-year-spectrum-outlook-2020-24-consultation-092020
ThinkTV. (2020). ThinkTV Fact Pack H2, 2019. North Sydney: ThinkTV. Retrieved from https://thinktv.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Fact-Pack-h2c19-2.pdf
Thomas, J., Barraket, J., Wilson, C. K., Rennie, E., Ewing, S., & MacDonald, T. (2019). Measuring Australia’s Digital Divide: The Australian Digital Inclusion Index 2019. Melbourne: RMIT University and Swinburne University of Technology for Telstra. Retrieved from https://www.csi.edu.au/media/2019_ADII_Report.pdf
Turnbull, M. (2014). The future of community TV. Blog. 11 September. Retrieved from https://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/the-future-of-community-tv
Weidner, M. (2016). DVB-T2: Private Programme werden als Freenet-TV vermarktet. 29 April. Tetarif.de. Retrieved from https://www.teltarif.de/dvb-t2-freenet-tv-start/news/63743.html