Blockchain Technology for Tourism Post COVID-19

Main Article Content

Mohd Norman Bin Bakri
Han Foon Neo
Chuan-Chin Teo


blockchain, tourism, COVID-19, decentralised, privacy


During the pandemic, the tourism industry was one of the most severely impacted sectors. As vaccines are now widely available, each government is working to develop a system that can generate a digital vaccine certificate and PCR lab test result to verify that a person has been fully vaccinated or has a negative PCR test result, in order to allow them to enter business premises, travel overseas or cross state borders. However, the use of centralised systems in the development of the digital COVID-19 pass system results in a number of challenges, including the system’s high susceptibility to failures, sluggish and inefficient information transmission, and vulnerability. The goal of this research is to offer a new digital COVID-19 pass based on the proposed “SmartHealthCard” blockchain technology. SmartHealthCard is a decentralised application (dApp) encrypting and hashing user data and safely storing it in a distributed database. Privacy preservation, GDPR compliance, self-sovereignty, KYC compliance and data integrity are featured. This initiative has the potential to benefit the public, healthcare professionals, service providers and the government. SmartHealthCard enables quick verification of tamper-proof COVID-19 tests/vaccines, aiding in COVID-19 transmission control while respecting the user’s right to privacy.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 109 | 764-PDF-v11n3pp42-67 Downloads 24


Abid, A., Cheikhrouhou, S., Kallel, S., & Jmaiel, M. (2020). How blockchain helps to combat trust crisis in COVID-19 pandemic? Proceedings of the 18th Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 764–765.
Abid, A., Cheikhrouhou, S., Kallel, S., & Jmaiel, M. (2021). NovidChain: Blockchain‐based privacy‐preserving platform for COVID‐19 test/vaccine certificates. Journal of Software: Practice and Experience, 54(4), 841–867.
Alabi, T. (2018). Add web3.eth.encrypt and web3.eth.decrypt functions to JSON-RPC. Ethereum/EIPs #1098. Retrieved from
auth0. (2013). JSON Web Tokens. Retrieved from
Benet, J. (2014). IPFS - Content Addressed, Versioned, P2P File System. Computer Science: Networking and Internet Architecture, ArXiv.
Braendgaard, P. (2018). Next Generation uPort Identity App released. Retrieved from
CovidPass. (2020). Balancing Public Safety & Re-Opening Borders to Travellers. Retrieved from
Ecrypt. (2019). Public-key authenticated encryption: crypto_box. NaCl: Networking and Cryptography library. Retrieved from
HandyVisas. (2020). CommonPass Health App to Facilitate Travel in 2021. Retrieved from
IBM Digital Health Pass. (2021). IBM Watson Health is now Merative. Retrieved from
ICC United Kingdom. (2021). ICC AOKpass — General Overview. Retrieved from
Infura (2022). “Every Blockchain Journey Begins with a Single Step”. Retrieved from
Naik, N., & Jenkins, P. (2020). uPort Open-Source Identity Management System: An Assessment of Self-Sovereign Identity and User-Centric Data Platform Built on Blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE), 1–7.
Pavli, A., & Maltezou, H. C. (2021). COVID-19 Vaccine Passport for Safe Resumption of Travel. Journal of Travel Medicine, 28(4).
Škare, M., Soriano, D. R., & Porada-Rochoń, M. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on the Travel and Tourism Industry. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 163, 120469.
Thorstensson, J. (2018). ERC: Lightweight Identity. Ethereum/EIPs #1056. Retrieved from
W3C. (2022). Verifiable Credentials Data Model 1.0. Retrieved from