Main Article Content
Ad Hoc, Cluster Head, Energy, PEGASIS, Self-Organising
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a group of networked mobile devices working in a cooperative manner. Due to usage, these devices quickly run out of battery power in critical situations and consequently fail in packet transmission. Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS) and Dynamic State algorithm are two research works with unique energy efficiency concepts that, if harmonized and refined, will deliver a better optimized energy-efficient routing protocol for MANETs. This study, therefore, proposes PEGADyn – a hybrid version of PEGASIS and Dynamic State algorithm for a new energy-efficient routing protocol in ad hoc networks. PEGADyn creates a virtual grid classification of nodes based on current location, followed by a cluster formation of nodes in each virtual grid created. In each cluster and virtual grid formed, cluster heads (CHs) and designated cluster heads (dCH) are selected based on their energy levels. CHs and dCHs are used for communication between clusters and virtual grids. The use of CHs and dCHs limits communication overheads among nodes, reducing the energy expended and increasing the network lifetime. A simulation comparison of PEGADyn with PEGASIS and Dynamic State shows PEGADyn to be better in extending network lifetime and maintaining network throughput.
Boukerche, A., Turgut, B., Aydin, N., Ahmad, M. Z., Bölöni, L. & Turgut, D. (2011). Routing protocols in ad hoc networks: A survey, Computer Networks, 55 (13), 3032-3080, September.
Das, S. K. & Tripathi, S. (2018). Intelligent energy-aware efficient routing for MANET, Wireless Networks, 24 (4), 1139-1159. DOI: 10.1007/s11276-016-1388-7
Gautam, J., Fathima, B. L., Sangeetha, K. & Muzammil, P. M. (2016). Energy Resource Optimization in Wireless Ad-hoc Network Using Dynamic States, International Conference on Engineering and Technology Systems, 13 (2), 57-61.
Heinzelman, W. R., Chandrakasan, A. & Balakrishnan, H. (2000). Energy efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks, Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, HI, USA.
Ilyas, M. (2003). The Handbook of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Li, T., Ruan, F., Fan, Z., Wang, J. & Kim, J. (2015). An Improved PEGASIS Routing Protocol Based on Neural Network and Ant Colony Algorithm, International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking, 8 (6), 149-160.
Lindsey, S. & Raghavendra, C. S. (2002). PEGASIS: Power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems, Proceedings in IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, USA.
Morris, C. (2018). California's Mendocino Complex Fires Devoured 7,000 Acres While You Slept, Fortune Inc, USA, 7 August. [Online]. Available: http://fortune.com/2018/08/07/california-mendocino-complex-fires-latest-numbers/. [Accessed 10 August 2018].
Pattanayak, B. K., Mishra M. K.,Jagadev, A. K., & Nayak A. K. (2011). Power Aware Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (PAAODV) Routing for MANETS, Journal of Convergence Information Technology, 6 (6), 212-220.
Sen, F., Bing, Q. & Liangrui, T. (2011). An improved Energy-Efficient PEGASIS-Based protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks, Eighth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, Shanghai, China. July. DOI: 10.1109/FSKD.2011.6020058
Sen, S., Clark, J. A. & Tapiador, J. E. (2011). Security threats in mobile ad hoc networks, pp. 128-136 in Security of Self-Organising networks: MANET WSN WMN VANET, A. K. Pathan (Ed.), Boca Raton: Auerbach Publications.
Smith, N. (2018). Timeline: The full story of the Thai cave rescue, Stuff Limited, July. [Online]. Available: https://www.stuff.co.nz/world/105495849/timeline-the-full-story-of-the-thai-cave-rescue [Accessed 10 August 2018].
Son, T.T., Minh, H. L., Sexton, G. & Aslam, N. A. (2014). Novel Encounter-Based Metric For Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Routing, Ad Hoc Networks (Elsevier), 14, March, 2-14.
Udaykumar K. & Thirugnanam, T. (2015). Analysis of Various Clustering Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Network. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, 6 (2), 1685-1691.
Valikannu, R., George, A., & Srivatsa, S. K. (2015). A novel energy consumption model using Residual Energy Based Mobile Agent selection scheme (REMA) in MANETs, 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks, Noida, India. DOI: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095410