Main Article Content
Internet of Things (IoT), energy efficiency, power consumption measurements, wireless network protocols, design guidelines
In the future Internet of Things, many common household devices will have communications interfaces added. The gathering of data from these household IoT-enabled devices will incur an energy cost and, in this paper, we investigate the impact of different communications technologies and protocols on that cost. As a first step towards energy-efficient design, we have measured the power consumption of several popular wireless interfaces – Bluetooth (Classic and Low Energy), ZigBee, Wi-Fi and 433 MHz module (RF433). We then combine these measurements through the example of a simple domestic stock control application and we show how an energy-efficient communications paradigm can be designed in each case. In general, both the communications paradigm and the amount of traffic need to be considered for an energy-efficient design. This is a contribution to design guidelines for energy-efficient communication in the Internet of Things as it expands to encompass all consumer devices.
Atzori, L., Iera, A. & Morabito, G. (2010). The Internet of Things: A survey. Computer Networks, 54(15), 2787-2805.
Bluetooth-SIG. (2010). Bluetooth Core Specification 4.0 - Bluetooth Low Energy. Available from https://www.bluetooth.com/specifications/archived-specifications .
Bluetooth-SIG. (2019). Bluetooth Core Specification 5.1. Available from https://www.bluetooth.com/specifications/bluetooth-core-specification .
Corke, D. K. (1977). Production control in engineering. London: Edward Arnold.
Dementyev, A., Hodges, S., Taylor, S. & Smith, J (2013). Power consumption analysis of Bluetooth Low Energy, ZigBee and ANT sensor nodes in a cyclic sleep scenario. 2013 IEEE International Wireless Symposium (IWS), April, Beijing, China.
Digi (2011). XBee & XBee-PRO ZB: ZigBee Embedded RF Module Family for OEMs. Available from: https://www.digi.com/hottag?ht=/pdf/ds_xbee_zigbee.pdf
Ferro, E. & Potorti, F. (2005). Bluetooth and Wi-Fi wireless protocols: a survey and a comparison. Wireless Communications, IEEE, 12(1): 12-26.
Gray, C. & Campbell, L. (2016). Should my toaster be polled? Towards an energy-efficient Internet of Things. 2016 26th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC), Dunedin, New Zealand.
Hsu, C. F., Liao, H. Y. M., Hsiu, P. C., Lin, Y. S., Shih, C. S., Kuo, T. W., & Liu, J. W. (2006). Smart pantries for homes. 2006 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 5, 4276-4283, October.
James, R. (2014). The Internet of Things: A Study in Hype, Reality, Disruption and Growth. Available from: http://sitic.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Internet-of-Things-A-Studyin-Hype-Reality-Disruption-and-Growth.pdf .
Jin-Shyan, L., Yu-Wei, S. & Chung-Chou, S. (2007). A Comparative Study of Wireless Protocols: Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee, and Wi-Fi. IECON 2007. 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2007.
Lee, H. G. & Chang, N. (2003). Energy-aware memory allocation in heterogeneous non-volatile memory systems. Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, 420-423. ACM, August.
Mackensen, E., Lai, M. & Wendt, T. M. (2012). Performance analysis of a Bluetooth Low Energy sensor system. 2012 IEEE 1st International Symposium on Wireless Systems (IDAACS-SWS).
Mikhaylov, K., Plevritakis, N. & Tervonen, J. (2013). Performance analysis and comparison of Bluetooth Low Energy with IEEE 802.15. 4 and SimpliciTI. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 2(3), 589-613.
Nordic (2017). Nordic nRF52832 Specification. Available from: http://infocenter.nordicsemi.com/pdf/nRF52832_PS_v1.4.pdf
OnWorld. (2017). Bluetooth Low Energy IoT: A Market Dynamics Report. Available from https://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/45cbbg/bluetooth_low .
OnWorld. (2018). 802.15.4 IoT Markets: Zigbee, Thread, 6LoWPAN, Wi-SUN and Others. Available from https://onworld.com/research/zigbeealliance/vip/ .
Oweis, N. E., Aracenay, C., George, W., Oweis, M., Soori, H., & Snasel, V. (2016). Internet of Things: Overview, Sources, Applications and Challenges. Proceedings of the Second International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement AECIA 2015, 57-67. Springer, Cham.
Pal Amutha, K., Sethukkarasi, C. & Pitchiah, R. (2012). Smart Kitchen Cabinet for Aware Home. SMART 2012, The First International Conference on Smart Systems, Devices and Technologies, Stuttgart, Germany.
Perahia, E. & Stacey, R. (2013). Next Generation Wireless LANS: 802.11 n and 802.11 ac. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Redbear. (2018). Redbear Nano v2. Available from: https://redbear.cc/product/ble/ble-nano-2.html
Shahzad, K. & Oelmann, B. (2014). A comparative study of in-sensor processing vs. raw data transmission using ZigBee, BLE and Wi-Fi for data intensive monitoring applications. 2014 11th International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems (ISWCS).
Siekkinen, M., Hiienkari, M., Nurminen, J. K. & Nieminen, J. (2012). How low energy is bluetooth low energy? Comparative measurements with ZigBee/802.15.4. Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), IEEE.
Weldon, M. K. (2016). The Future X Network: a Bell Labs Perspective. CRC press.
Yang, H., Sawhney, R., Zhang, G., Marella, L. & Han, Z. (2014). Using Smart Kitchen for grocery purchase prediction. Proceedings of the 2014 Industrial and Systems Engineering Research Conference.
ZigBee Alliance. (2012). ZigBee Specification (IEEE 802.15.4). Available from: https://www.zigbee.org/download/standards-zigbee-specification/#