The 1-Millisecond Challenge – Tactile Internet: From Concept to Standardization

Main Article Content

Duc Tran Le
Tri Gia Nguyen
Thi Thu Thao Tran


Tactile Internet, Internet of Skills, Haptic Communication, 1-millisecond challenge, latency


In recent years, Tactile Internet (TI) has become a familiar concept to humankind. It is expected to have the potential to create many new opportunities and applications that reshape our life and economy. However, the biggest challenge for recognizing the TI – the “1-millisecond challenge” remains unchanged, and it requires additional research efforts. In this paper, we will dissect what has been done and what needs to be done for the “TI ecosystem”. We will also investigate the TI concept from the perspective of the “network latency evolution”, as well as analyzing the architecture and the emerging technologies, which are needed to meet the strict requirements of the TI.

Abstract 218 | 240-PDF-v8n2pp56-93 Downloads 4


Ahmed, E., & Rehmani, M. H. (2017). Mobile Edge Computing: Opportunities, solutions, and challenges. Future Generation Computer Systems, 70, 59–63.
Aijaz, A. (2016). Towards 5G-enabled Tactile Internet: Radio resource allocation for haptic communications. 2016 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW).
Aijaz, A., Simsek, M., Dohler, M., & Fettweis, G. (2016). Shaping 5G for the Tactile Internet. 5G Mobile Communications, 677–691.
Aijaz, A., Dohler, M., Aghvami, A. H., Friderikos, V., & Frodigh, M. (2017). Realizing the Tactile Internet: Haptic Communications over Next Generation 5G Cellular Networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 24(2), 82–89. ??
Aijaz, A., Dawy, Z., Pappas, N., Simsek, M., Oteafy, S., & Holland, O. (2018). Toward a tactile Internet reference architecture: Vision and progress of the IEEE P1918.1 standard. arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.11915.
Aijaz, A., & Sooriyabandara, M. (2019). The Tactile Internet for Industries: A Review. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 414–435.
Al Jaafreh, M., Alowaidi, M., Al Osman, H., & El Saddik, A. (2018). Multimodal Systems, Experiences, and Communications: A Review Toward the Tactile Internet Vision. Recent Trends in Computer Applications, 191–220.
Amadeo, M., Campolo, C., & Molinaro, A. (2012). Enhancing IEEE 802.11p/WAVE to provide infotainment applications in VANETs. Ad Hoc Networks, 10(2), 253–269.
Andrews, J. G., Buzzi, S., Choi, W., Hanly, S. V., Lozano, A., Soong, A. C. K., & Zhang, J. C. (2014). What Will 5G Be. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 32(6), 1065–1082.
Antonakoglou, K., Xu, X., Steinbach, E., Mahmoodi, T., & Dohler, M. (2018). Toward Haptic Communications Over the 5G Tactile Internet. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 20(4), 3034–3059.
Arata, J., Takahashi, H., Pitakwatchara, P., Warisawa, S., Tanoue, K., Konishi, S., Ieiri, S., Shimizu, N., Nakashima, K., Okamura, Y., Fujino, Y., Ueda, P., Chotiwan, M., Mitsuishi, M., Hashizume (2007). A remote surgery experiment between Japan and Thailand over Internet using a low latency CODEC system. Proceedings 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2007, 953-959.
Ateya, A. A., Vybornova, A., Muthanna, A., Markova, E., Gudkova, I., Gogol, A., & Koucheryavy, A. (2018). Key solutions for light limitations. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Networks and Distributed Systems - ICFNDS ’18.
Ateya, A., Muthanna, A., Gudkova, I., Abuarqoub, A., Vybornova, A. & Koucheryavy, A. (2018). Development of intelligent core network for Tactile Internet and future smart systems. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 7(1), 1.
Athmiya, N. S., Shobha, K. R., & Sarimela, V. (2016). Feasibility study and implementation of openflow based SDN controller for tactical scenario. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information & Communication Technology (RTEICT).
Bachhuber, C., & Steinbach, E. (2017). Are today's video communication solutions ready for the tactile internet?. In 2017 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), 1-6. ??
Bainbridge, R., & Paradiso, J. A. (2011). Wireless Hand Gesture Capture through Wearable Passive Tag Sensing. 2011 International Conference on Body Sensor Networks, 200–204.
Baldi, T. L., Scheggi, S., Meli, L., Mohammadi, M., & Prattichizzo, D. (2017). GESTO: A Glove for Enhanced Sensing and Touching Based on Inertial and Magnetic Sensors for Hand Tracking and Cutaneous Feedback. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 47(6), 1066–1076.
Basdogan, C., Ho, C.-H., Srinivasan, M. A., & Slater, M. (2000). An experimental study on the role of touch in shared virtual environments. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7(4), 443–460.
Bennis, M., Debbah, M., & Poor, H. V. (2018). Ultrareliable and Low-Latency Wireless Communication: Tail, Risk, and Scale. Proceedings of the IEEE, 106(10), 1834–1853.
Bermejo, C., & Hui, P. (2017). A survey on haptic technologies for mobile augmented reality. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1709.00698.
Bojkovic, Z. S., Bakmaz, B. M., & Bakmaz, M. R. (2017). Vision and enabling technologies of tactile internet realization. 2017 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS).
Braun, P. J., Pandi, S., Schmoll, R.-S., & Fitzek, F. H. P. (2017). On the study and deployment of mobile edge cloud for tactile Internet using a 5G gaming application. 2017 14th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), 154-159.
Burdea, G. C., & Coiffet, P. (2003). Virtual reality technology. John Wiley & Sons.
Cabrera, J. A., Schmoll, R.-S., Nguyen, G. T., Pandi, S., & Fitzek, F. H. P. (2019). Softwarization and Network Coding in the Mobile Edge Cloud for the Tactile Internet. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 350–363.
Cakuli, J. (2016). Application scenarios, research challenges and standardization for Tactile Internet. Master’s thesis, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Cao, H. (2017). What is the next innovation after the internet of things?. arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.07160.
Ceselli, A., Premoli, M., & Secci, S. (2017). Mobile Edge Cloud Network Design Optimization. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 25(3), 1818–1831.
Chaudhari, R., Schuwerk, C., Danaei, M., & Steinbach, E. (2015). Perceptual and Bitrate-Scalable Coding of Haptic Surface Texture Signals. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 9(3), 462–473.
Chen, K.-C., Zhang, T., Gitlin, R. D., & Fettweis, G. (2019). Ultra-Low Latency Mobile Networking. IEEE Network, 33(2), 181–187.
Cisco Visual Networking Index. (2016). Global mobile data traffic forecast update, 2016-2021 White Paper. (Accessed 17.07.2018)
Citrin, A. V., Stem, D. E., Spangenberg, E. R., & Clark, M. J. (2003). Consumer need for tactile input: An internet retailing challenge. Journal of Business Research, 56(11), 915–922.
Cizmeci, B., Chaudhari, R., Xu, X., Alt, N., & Steinbach, E. (2014). A Visual-Haptic Multiplexing Scheme for Teleoperation Over Constant-Bitrate Communication Links. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 131–138.
Cizmeci, B., Xu, X., Chaudhari, R., Bachhuber, C., Alt, N., & Steinbach, E. (2017). A Multiplexing Scheme for Multimodal Teleoperation. ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications, 13(2), 1–28.
Cunha, F., Villas, L., Boukerche, A., Maia, G., Viana, A., Mini, R. A. F., & Loureiro, A. A. F. (2016). Data communication in VANETs: Protocols, applications and challenges. Ad Hoc Networks, 44, 90–103.
D’Ursol, F., Grasso, C., Santoro, C., Santoro, F. F., & Schembra, G. (2018). The Tactile Internet for the flight control of UAV flocks. 2018 4th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization and Workshops (NetSoft).
Dipietro, L., Sabatini, A. M., & Dario, P. (2008). A Survey of Glove-Based Systems and Their Applications. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews), 38(4), 461–482.
Dohler, M. (2015). The Tactile Internet IoT, 5G and Cloud on Steroids. 5G Radio Technology Seminar. Exploring Technical Challenges in the Emerging 5G Ecosystem.
Dohler, M. Mahmoodi, T., Lema, M. A., Condoluci, M., Sardis, F., Antonakoglou, K., & Aghvami, H. (2017). Internet of skills, where robotics meets AI, 5G and the Tactile Internet. 2017 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC).
Dressler, F., Klingler, F., Segata, M., & Cigno, R. L. (2019). Cooperative Driving and the Tactile Internet. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 436–446.
Duc, L. T., Simonina, O., Buinevich, M., & Vladyko, A. (2018). A multi-criteria priority-based V2I communication for information dissemination at RSU in VANET. JP Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, SV2018(2), 195–203.
Durisi, G., Koch, T., & Popovski, P. (2016). Toward Massive, Ultrareliable, and Low-Latency Wireless Communication With Short Packets. Proceedings of the IEEE, 104(9), 1711–1726.
Eid, M., Cha, J., & El Saddik, A. (2011). Admux: An Adaptive Multiplexer for Haptic–Audio–Visual Data Communication. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 60(1), 21–31.
Elbamby, M. S., Perfecto, C., Bennis, M., & Doppler, K. (2018). Toward Low-Latency and Ultra-Reliable Virtual Reality. IEEE Network, 32(2), 78–84.
Elhajj, I., Xi, N., Wai Keung Fung, Yun Hui Liu, Li, W. J., Kaga, T., & Fukuda, T. (2001). Haptic information in Internet-based teleoperation. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 6(3), 295–304.
Ericsson (2013). LTE for utilities – Supporting smart grids. White Paper, UEN 285 23-3208.
ETSI (2017). IPv6-based Tactile Internet. International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Group Specification GR IP6 0014.
Faheem, M., Shah, S. B. H., Butt, R. A., Raza, B., Anwar, M., Ashraf, M. W., Ngadi, Md. A., & Gungor, V. C. (2018). Smart grid communication and information technologies in the perspective of Industry 4.0: Opportunities and challenges. Computer Science Review, 30, 1–30.
Fang, X., Misra, S., Xue, G., & Yang, D. (2012). Smart Grid — The New and Improved Power Grid: A Survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 14(4), 944–980.
Farhady, H., Lee, H., & Nakao, A. (2015). Software-defined networking: A survey. Computer Networks, 81, 79-95.
Farhang, M., & Bizaki, H. K. (2020). Adaptive time-frequency multiplexing for 5G applications. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 117, 153089.
Farhoudi, M., Palantas, P., Abrishamchi, B., Mihailovic, A., & Aghvami, A. H. (2017). A novel reliable routing scheme for Tactile-oriented Internet traffic. 2017 24th International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT).
Fettweis, G., Boche, H., Wiegand, T., Zielinski, E., Schotten, H., Merz, P., Hirche, S., Festag, A., Häffner, W., Meyer, M., & Steinbach, E. (2014). The Tactile Internet-ITU-T Technology Watch Report. International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Geneva. [Available Online]: (Accessed 07.05.2020)
Fettweis, G. P. (2014). The Tactile Internet: Applications and Challenges. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 9(1), 64–70.
Fettweis, G., & Alamouti, S. (2014). 5G: Personal mobile internet beyond what cellular did to telephony. IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(2), 140–145.
Foukas, X., Patounas, G., Elmokashfi, A., & Marina, M. K. (2017). Network Slicing in 5G: Survey and Challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(5), 94–100.
Fragouli, C., & Soljanin, E. (2008). Network coding applications. Foundations and Trends in Networking, 2(2), 135-269.
Gao, J., Xiao, Y., Liu, J., Liang, W., & Chen, C. L. P. (2012). A survey of communication/networking in Smart Grids. Future Generation Computer Systems, 28(2), 391–404.
Giannoulakis, I., Kafetzakis, E., Xylouris, G., Gardikis, G., & Kourtis, A. (2014). On the Applications of Efficient NFV Management Towards 5G Networking. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on 5G for Ubiquitous Connectivity.
Girish, L., & Rao, S. K. N. (2016). Mathematical tools and methods for analysis of SDN: A comprehensive survey. 2016 2nd International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I).
Goldfarb, A. & Tucker, C. (2017). Digital economics. National Bureau of Economic Research, Technical Report.
Grohmann, B., Spangenberg, E. R., & Sprott, D. E. (2007). The influence of tactile input on the evaluation of retail product offerings. Journal of Retailing, 83(2), 237–245.
Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., & Palaniswami, M. (2013). Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(7), 1645–1660.
Haddadin, S., Johannsmeier, L., & Diaz Ledezma, F. (2019). Tactile Robots as a Central Embodiment of the Tactile Internet. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 471–487.
Han, B., Gopalakrishnan, V., Ji, L., & Lee, S. (2015). Network function virtualization: Challenges and opportunities for innovations. IEEE Communications Magazine, 53(2), 90–97.
Hany, U., Hossain, A. B. M. S., & Saha, P. K. (2010). QoS optimization and performance analysis of NGN. International Conference on Electrical & Computer Engineering (ICECE 2010).
Hinterseer, P., Hirche, S., Chaudhuri, S., Steinbach, E., & Buss, M. (2008). Perception-Based Data Reduction and Transmission of Haptic Data in Telepresence and Teleaction Systems. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 56(2), 588–597.
Ho, T., Medard, M., Koetter, R., Karger, D. R., Effros, M., Shi, J., & Leong, B. (2006). A Random Linear Network Coding Approach to Multicast. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 52(10), 4413–4430.
Hoshi, T., Takahashi, M., Iwamoto, T., & Shinoda, H. (2010). Noncontact Tactile Display Based on Radiation Pressure of Airborne Ultrasound. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 3(3), 155–165.
Hu, G., Tay, W., & Wen, Y. (2012). Cloud robotics: architecture, challenges and applications. IEEE Network, 26(3), 21–28.
Hu, Y. C., Patel, M., Sabella, D., Sprecher, N., & Young, V. (2015). Mobile edge computing—A key technology towards 5G. ETSI white paper, 11(11), 1-16.
Huaimin, Wang, Bo, D., & Xu, J. (2018). Cloud Robotics: A Distributed Computing View. Symposium on Real-Time and Hybrid Systems, 231–245.
Huawei (2015). 5G: New air interface and radio access virtualization. White Paper. [Available Online]: (Accessed 07.05.2020).
IEEE 1918.1 - Tactile Internet: Application scenarios, definitions and terminology, architecture, functions, and technical assumptions. IEEE. [Available Online]: (Accessed 18.08.2018)
ITU-T. (2015). Network performance objectives for IP-based services. ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541.
Jararweh, Y., Doulat, A., AlQudah, O., Ahmed, E., Al-Ayyoub, M., & Benkhelifa, E. (2016). The future of mobile cloud computing: Integrating cloudlets and Mobile Edge Computing. 2016 23rd International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT).
Jastrebova, A., Vybornova, A., & Kirichek, R. (2016). Review the concept of the Tactile Internet and technology for its realization. Telecom IT, 4(4), 89.
Jiang, D., & Liu, G. (2016). An Overview of 5G Requirements. 5G Mobile Communications, 3–26.
Jiang, X., Shokri-Ghadikolaei, H., Fodor, G., Modiano, E., Pang, Z., Zorzi, M., & Fischione, C. (2019). Low-Latency Networking: Where Latency Lurks and How to Tame It. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 280–306.
Joshi, K., & Benson, T. (2016). Network function virtualization. IEEE Internet Computing, 20(6), 7-9.
Kamei, K., Nishio, S., Hagita, N., & Sato, M. (2012). Cloud networked robotics. IEEE Network, 26(3), 28–34.
Kehoe, B., Patil, S., Abbeel, P., & Goldberg, K. (2015). A Survey of Research on Cloud Robotics and Automation. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 12(2), 398–409.
Kim, H., & Feamster, N. (2013). Improving network management with software defined networking. IEEE Communications Magazine, 51(2), 114–119.
Kim, K. S., Kim, D.K., Chae, C.B., Choi, S., Ko, Y.C., Kim, J., Lim, Y.G., Yang, M., Kim, S., Lim, B., & Lee, K. (2019). Ultrareliable and Low-Latency Communication Techniques for Tactile Internet Services. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 376–393.
Kim, S. S. Y., Dohler, M., & Dasgupta, P. (2018). The Internet of Skills: use of fifth-generation telecommunications, haptics and artificial intelligence in robotic surgery. BJU International, 122(3), 356–358.
Kimura, N., & Latifi, S. (2005). A survey on data compression in wireless sensor networks. International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC’05) - Volume II.
Koucheryavy, A., Paramonov, A. & Al-Naggar, I. (2013). Communication networks with low latency. Elektrosvyaz’, 12, 15–19.
Koucheryavy, A., & Vybornova, A. (2016). Tactile Internet. Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Infotelecommunication ICAIT V, 6–11.
Koucheryavy, A., Makolkina, M., & Kirichek, R. (2016). Tactile Internet. Communication networks with ultra-low latency. Elektrosvyaz’, 1, 44–46.
Kreutz, D., Ramos, F. M. V., Esteves Verissimo, P., Esteve Rothenberg, C., Azodolmolky, S., & Uhlig, S. (2015). Software-Defined Networking: A Comprehensive Survey. Proceedings of the IEEE, 103(1), 14–76.
LaViola, J. J. (2000). A discussion of cybersickness in virtual environments. ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 32(1), 47–56.
Lee, J. D., McGehee, D. V., Brown, T. L., & Reyes, M. L. (2002). Collision Warning Timing, Driver Distraction, and Driver Response to Imminent Rear-End Collisions in a High-Fidelity Driving Simulator. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 44(2), 314–334.
Lema, M. A., Antonakoglou, K., Sardis, F., Sornkarn, N., Condoluci, M., Mahmoodi, T., & Dohler, M. (2017). 5G case study of Internet of Skills: Slicing the human senses. 2017 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), 1–6.
Li, C., Li, C.P., Hosseini, K., Lee, S.B., Jiang, J., Chen, W., Horn, G., Ji, T., Smee, J. E., & Li, J. (2019). 5G-Based Systems Design for Tactile Internet. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 307–324.
Li, D., Zhu, W., Duan, Y., & Fu, Z. (2006). Toward developing a tele-diagnosis system on fish disease. Artificial Intelligence in Theory and Practice, 445–454.
Li, Y., & Chen, M. (2015). Software-Defined Network Function Virtualization: A Survey. IEEE Access, 3, 2542–2553.
Liu, H., Eldarrat, F., Alqahtani, H., Reznik, A., de Foy, X., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Mobile Edge Cloud System: Architectures, Challenges, and Approaches. IEEE Systems Journal, 12(3), 2495–2508.
Liu, S., Li, M., Xu, X., Steinbach, E., & Liu, Q. (2018). QoE-Driven Uplink Scheduling for Haptic Communications Over 5G Enabled Tactile Internet. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Haptic, Audio and Visual Environments and Games (HAVE).
Lo, H. S., & Xie, S. Q. (2012). Exoskeleton robots for upper-limb rehabilitation: State of the art and future prospects. Medical Engineering & Physics, 34(3), 261–268.
Lu, L., Chen, Y., Guo, W., Yang, H., Wu, Y., & Xing, S. (2015). Prototype for 5G new air interface technology SCMA and performance evaluation. China Communications, 12(Supplement), 38–48.
Ma, Y., Mao, Z.-H., Jia, W., Li, C., Yang, J., & Sun, M. (2011). Magnetic Hand Tracking for Human-Computer Interface. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 47(5), 970–973.
Ma, Z., & Ben-Tzvi, P. (2015). RML Glove—An Exoskeleton Glove Mechanism With Haptics Feedback. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 20(2), 641–652.
Mahmoodi, T., & Seetharaman, S. (2014). On using a SDN-based control plane in 5G mobile networks. Wireless World Research Forum, 32nd Meeting.
Maier, M., Chowdhury, M., Rimal, B. P., & Van, D. P. (2016). The tactile internet: vision, recent progress, and open challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 54(5), 138–145.
Maier, M., Ebrahimzadeh, A., & Chowdhury, M. (2018). The Tactile Internet: Automation or Augmentation of the Human? IEEE Access, 6, 41607–41618.
Majid, M. I., Aslam, T., Hashmi, A. M., Subzwari, D., & Siddiqui, B. (2020). Tactile Internet and the Remote Surgeon. Employing Recent Technologies for Improved Digital Governance, 290–316.
Marcus, M. J. (2015). 5G and “IMT for 2020 and beyond” [Spectrum Policy and Regulatory Issues]. IEEE Wireless Communications, 22(4), 2–3.
Martinez, J., Martinez, D., Molina, J. P., Gonz´lez, P., & Garcia, A. (2011). Comparison of Force and Vibrotactile Feedback with Direct Stimulation for Texture Recognition. 2011 International Conference on Cyberworlds.
Miao, Y., Jiang, Y., Peng, L., Hossain, M. S., & Muhammad, G. (2018). Telesurgery Robot Based on 5G Tactile Internet. Mobile Networks and Applications, 23(6), 1645–1654.
Mijumbi, R., Serrat, J., Gorricho, J.-L., Bouten, N., De Turck, F., & Boutaba, R. (2016). Network Function Virtualization: State-of-the-Art and Research Challenges. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 18(1), 236–262.
Mondal, S., Ruan, L., & Wong, E. (2020). Remote human-to-machine distance emulation through AI-enhanced servers for tactile internet applications. Optical Fiber Communication Conference, M1A-6.
Morales, A. C., Aijaz, A., & Mahmoodi, T. (2015). Taming Mobility Management Functions in 5G: Handover Functionality as a Service (FaaS). 2015 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps).
Mountaser, G., Mahmoodi, T., & Simeone, O. (2018). Reliable and Low-Latency Fronthaul for Tactile Internet Applications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 36(11), 2455–2463.
Neaime, J.E. (2018). Tactile-capable optical cloud distribution networks. Ph.D. dissertation, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
NGMN Alliance (2015). 5G White Paper. Next Generation Mobile Networks, White Paper, 1–125.
Nikopour, H., & Baligh, H. (2013). Sparse code multiple access. 2013 IEEE 24th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 332–336.
Niu, Y., Li, Y., Jin, D., Su, L., & Vasilakos, A. V. (2015). A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges. Wireless Networks, 21(8), 2657–2676.
Ordonez-Lucena, J., Ameigeiras, P., Lopez, D., Ramos-Munoz, J. J., Lorca, J., & Folgueira, J. (2017). Network Slicing for 5G with SDN/NFV: Concepts, Architectures, and Challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(5), 80–87.
Oteafy, S. M. A., & Hassanein, H. S. (2019). Leveraging Tactile Internet Cognizance and Operation via IoT and Edge Technologies. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 364–375.
Pilz, J., Mehlhose, M., Wirth, T., Wieruch, D., Holfeld, B., & Haustein, T. (2016). A Tactile Internet demonstration: 1ms ultra low delay for wireless communications towards 5G. 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 862–863.
Rappaport, T.S., Sun, S., Mayzus, R., Zhao, H., Azar, Y., Wang, K., Wong, G. N., Schulz, J. K., Samimi, M., & Gutierrez, F. (2013). Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work! IEEE Access, 1, 335–349.
Repperger, D. W., & Phillips, C. A. (2006). Haptic Devices and Interfaces. Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering.
Rost, P., Mannweiler, C., Michalopoulos, D.S., Sartori, C., Sciancalepore, V., Sastry, N., Holland, O., Tayade, S., Han, B., Bega, D., & Aziz, D. (2017). Network Slicing to Enable Scalability and Flexibility in 5G Mobile Networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(5), 72–79.
Ruan, L., Dias, M. P. I., & Wong, E. (2017). Towards Tactile Internet Capable E-Health: A Delay Performance Study of Downlink-Dominated SmartBANs. GLOBECOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference.
Russell, S. J., & Norvig. P. (2009). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson Education Limited.
Sachs, J., Andersson, L. A. A., Araujo, J., Curescu, C., Lundsjo, J., Rune, G., & Wikstrom, G. (2019). Adaptive 5G Low-Latency Communication for Tactile Internet Services. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 325–349.
Salkintzis, A. (Ed.). (2004). Mobile Internet. Electrical Engineering & Applied Signal Processing Series.
Sanfeliu, A., Hagita, N., & Saffiotti, A. (2008). Network robot systems. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 56(10), 793–797. http:??//
Satyanarayanan, M. (2017). The Emergence of Edge Computing. Computer, 50(1), 30–39.
Shafigh, A. S., Glisic, S., & Lorenzo, B. (2017). Dynamic Network Slicing for Flexible Radio Access in Tactile Internet. GLOBECOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference.
Shahabi, C., Ortega, A., & Kolahdouzan, M. R. (2002). A comparison of different haptic compression techniques. Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 1, 657–660.
She, C., & Yang, C. (2016). Ensuring the Quality-of-Service of Tactile Internet. 2016 IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 1-5.
Shima, K., & Sato, R. (2017). A novel haptic device design based on somatosensory superimposed stimuli. Advanced Robotics, 31(3), 135–142.
Shull, P. B., & Damian, D. D. (2015). Haptic wearables as sensory replacement, sensory augmentation and trainer – a review. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 12(1).
Siano, P. (2014). Demand response and smart grids—A survey. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30, 461–478.
Sikora, T. (1997). The MPEG-4 video standard verification model. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 7(1), 19–31.
Simsek, M., Aijaz, A., Dohler, M., Sachs, J., & Fettweis, G. (2016). The 5G-Enabled Tactile Internet: Applications, requirements, and architecture. 2016 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference.
Simsek, M., Aijaz, A., Dohler, M., Sachs, J., & Fettweis, G. (2016). 5G-Enabled Tactile Internet. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 34(3), 460–473.
Simsek, M., Aijaz, A., Dohler, M., & Fettweis, G. (2017). 5G radio access for the Tactile Internet. Access, Fronthaul and Backhaul Networks for 5G & Beyond, 119–138.
Spelmezan, D. (2012). An investigation into the use of tactile instructions in snowboarding. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - MobileHCI’12.
Steinbach, E., Hirche, S., Kammerl, J., Vittorias, I., & Chaudhari, R. (2011). Haptic Data Compression and Communication. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 28(1), 87–96.
Steinbach, E., Hirche, S., Ernst, M., Brandi, F., Chaudhari, R., Kammerl, J., & Vittorias, I. (2012). Haptic Communications. Proceedings of the IEEE.
Steinbach, E., Strese, M., Eid, M., Liu, X., Bhardwaj, A., Liu, Q., Al-Ja’afreh, M., Mahmoodi, T., Hassen, R., El Saddik, A., & Holland, O. (2019). Haptic Codecs for the Tactile Internet. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(2), 447–470.
Storer, J. A. (1987). Data compression: methods and theory. Computer Science Press, Inc.
Sukhmani, S., Sadeghi, M., Erol-Kantarci, M., & El Saddik, A. (2019). Edge Caching and Computing in 5G for Mobile AR/VR and Tactile Internet. IEEE MultiMedia, 26(1), 21–30.
Swindlehurst, A. L., Ayanoglu, E., Heydari, P., & Capolino, F. (2014). Millimeter-wave massive MIMO: the next wireless revolution? IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(9), 56–62.
Szabo, D., Gulyas, A., Fitzek, F. H. P., & Lucani, D. E. (2015). Towards the Tactile Internet: Decreasing Communication Latency with Network Coding and Software Defined Networking. European Wireless 2015; Proceedings of 21th European Wireless Conference, 1–6.
Szymanski, T. H. (2017). Strengthening security and privacy in an ultra-dense green 5G Radio Access Network for the industrial and tactile Internet of Things. 2017 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC).
Tong, L., Li, Y., & Gao, W. (2016). A hierarchical edge cloud architecture for mobile computing. IEEE INFOCOM 2016 - The 35th Annual IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications.
Tuballa, M. L., & Abundo, M. L. (2016). A review of the development of Smart Grid technologies. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 710–725.
Umek, A., Tomaži?, S., & Kos, A. (2015). Wearable training system with real-time biofeedback and gesture user interface. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 19(7), 989–998.
Van Den Berg, D., Glans, R., De Koning, D., Kuipers, F. A., Lugtenburg, J., Polachan, K., Venkata, P. T., Singh, C., Turkovic, B., & Van Wijk, B. (2017). Challenges in Haptic Communications Over the Tactile Internet. IEEE Access, 5, 23502–23518.
Varghese, A., & Tandur, D. (2014). Wireless requirements and challenges in Industry 4.0. 2014 International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I), 634-638.
Varsha, H. S., & Shashikala, K. P. (2017). The tactile Internet. 2017 International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA), 419–422.
Verbelen, T., Simoens, P., Turck, F. D., & Dhoedt, B. (2012). Cloudlets: bringing the cloud to the mobile user. Proceedings of the third ACM workshop on Mobile cloud computing and services, 29–36.
Weber, P., Rueckert, E., Calandra, R., Peters, J., & Beckerle, P. (2016). A low-cost sensor glove with vibrotactile feedback and multiple finger joint and hand motion sensing for human-robot interaction. 2016 25th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN).
Weiner, M., Jorgovanovic, M., Sahai, A., & Nikolie, B. (2014). Design of a low-latency, high-reliability wireless communication system for control applications. 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 3829-3835.
Whaiduzzaman, Md, Sookhak, M., Gani, A., & Buyya, R. (2014). A survey on vehicular cloud computing. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 40, 325–344.
Wicker, S. B., & Bhargava, V. K. (1994). An introduction to Reed-Solomon codes. Reed-Solomon codes and their applications, IEEE, 1-16.
Wollschlaeger, M., Sauter, T., & Jasperneite, J. (2017). The Future of Industrial Communication: Automation Networks in the Era of the Internet of Things and Industry 4.0. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 11(1), 17–27.
Wong, E., Dias, M. P. I., & Ruan, L. (2016). Tactile internet capable passive optical LAN for healthcare. 2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) 1–3).
Yilmaz, O. N. C., Wang, Y.-P. E., Johansson, N. A., Brahmi, N., Ashraf, S. A., & Sachs, J. (2015). Analysis of ultra-reliable and low-latency 5G communication for a factory automation use case. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW).
Yorita, A., Hashimoto, T., Kobayashi, H., & Kubota, N. (2009). Remote Education Based on Robot Edutainment. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 204–213.
Yu, H., Afzal, M. K., Zikria, Y. B., Rachedi, A., & Fitzek, F. H. (2020). Tactile Internet: Technologies, test platforms, trials, and applications. Future Generation Computer Systems, 106, 685–688.
Yu, T., Wang, X., & Zhu, Y. (2019). Blockchain Technology for the 5G-Enabled Internet of Things Systems: Principle, Applications and Challenges. 5G-Enabled Internet of Things, 301–321.
Yuan, Z., Ghinea, G., & Muntean, G.-M. (2015). Beyond Multimedia Adaptation: Quality of Experience-Aware Multi-Sensorial Media Delivery. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 17(1), 104–117.
Yuan, Z., Yu, G., & Li, W. (2015). Multi-user shared access for 5G. Telecommunication Network Technology, 5(5), 28-30.
Yuan, Z., Yu, G., Li, W., Yuan, Y., Wang, X., & Xu, J. (2016). Multi-User Shared Access for Internet of Things. 2016 IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring).
Zhang, H., Liu, N., Chu, X., Long, K., Aghvami, A.-H., & Leung, V. C. M. (2017). Network Slicing Based 5G and Future Mobile Networks: Mobility, Resource Management, and Challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(8), 138–145.
Zhang, N., Yang, P., Zhang, S., Chen, D., Zhuang, W., Liang, B., & Shen, X. S. (2017). Software Defined Networking Enabled Wireless Network Virtualization: Challenges and Solutions. IEEE Network, 31(5), 42–49.
Zhang, Q., Liu, J., & Zhao, G. (2018). Towards 5G enabled tactile robotic telesurgery. arXiv preprint arXiv:1803.03586.
Zhang, Z., Chai, X., Long, K., Vasilakos, A. V., & Hanzo, L. (2015). Full duplex techniques for 5G networks: self-interference cancellation, protocol design, and relay selection. IEEE Communications Magazine, 53(5), 128–137.