Study on Fixed and Dynamic Spectrum Access Models for Cellular Networks

Main Article Content

Muhammad Sheharyar https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2031-7526
Alamgir Naushad https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7009-1751
Imran Khan
Muhammad Abid Hussain https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8383-1402
Faizullah Khan Kakar

Keywords

Command and Control Model, Market-based Model, Dynamic Spectrum Access, Licensed Shared Access, Citizen Bands Radio Service

Abstract

Radio frequency spectrum is a scarce resource, hence its effective and efficient utilization for contemporary and future technologies is of paramount importance. This paper mainly focuses on analysing conventional models for spectrum management, such as command and control and market-based models, and their inefficacy to serve the upcoming technological demands globally. Generally outlined observations concerning spectrum mismanagement include lesser availability of unassigned spectrum and under-utilization of spectrum allocated to passive users. Due to the considerable urge for flexible spectrum assignment framework models and policies, new spectrum assignment approaches, such as Dynamic Spectrum Access, are investigated. Moreover, models such as Licensed Shared Access (LSA), which evolved from Europe, and Citizen Bands Radio Service (CBRS) from North America are also evaluated in this paper as potential choices for future spectrum management in Pakistan. In the aforesaid models, spectrum is shared among multiple users as per time, place and dimensions, keeping in view the security and priority of incumbent and licensed users. In addition, the efficiency of spectrum utilization and economic advantages of these models have also been analysed. Lastly, LSA and CBRS are studied comparatively, and spectrum management suggestions are made for effective implementation in Pakistan.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 89 | 395-PDF-v10n2pp267-287 Downloads 7

References

Calabrese, M. (2021). Use it or Share It: A New Default Policy for Spectrum Management. TPRC48: The 48th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3762098
Cellular Assignments in Pakistan. (2022). Spectrum Planning & Management, Frequency Allocation Board. https://fab.gov.pk/spectrum-planning-management-2/
Cisco. (2020). Cisco annual internet report (2018-2023). White paper. Available at https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/executive-perspectives/annual-internet-report/white-paper-c11-741490.pdf
ETSI. (2020). Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); evolved Licensed Shared Access (eLSA); Part 2: System architecture and high-level procedures. https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/103600_103699/10365202/01.01.01_60/ts_10365202v010101p.pdf
FAB [Frequency Allocation Board]. (2022a). https://fab.gov.pk/
FAB [Frequency Allocation Board]. (2022b). Pakistan Table of Frequency Allocations Frequency (8.3 KHz–3000 GHz). Frequency Allocation Board, Government of Pakistan.
FCC [Federal Communications Commission]. (2020a). FCC Authorizes Full Commercial Deployment in 3.5 GHz Band. Federal Communications Commission, 27 January 2020. https://www.fcc.gov/document/fcc-authorizes-full-commercial-deployment-35-ghz-band
FCC [Federal Communications Commission]. (2020b). 3.5 GHz Band Overview. Federal Communications Commission. https://www.fcc.gov/35-ghz-band-overview
Freyens, B. (2007). The Economics of Spectrum Management: A Review. Australian Communication and Media Authority (ACMA): Canberra Australia.
Garhwal, A., & Bhattacharya, P. P. (2012). A survey on dynamic spectrum access techniques for cognitive radio. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1201.1964.
ITU. (2022). Global ICT Statistics. Available at https://www.itu.int:443/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx
GSMA. (2014). The Cost of Spectrum Auction Distortions. Available at https://www.gsma.com/spectrum/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/The-Cost-of-Spectrum-Auction-Distortions.-GSMA-Coleago-report.-Nov14.pdf
GSMA. (2017). Introducing Spectrum Management. Available at https://www.gsma.com/spectrum/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Introducing-Spectrum-Management.pdf
GSMA. (2022). GSMA. https://www.gsma.com/
Hannabuss, S. (2006). Digital Crossroads: American Telecommunications Policy in the Internet Age. Library Review, 55(9), 646–648. https://doi.org/10.1108/00242530610706914
Kalliovaara, J., Jokela, T. J., & Kokkinen, H. (2018). Licensed Shared Access Evolution to Provide Exclusive and Dynamic Shared Spectrum Access for Novel 5G Use Cases. IntechOpen. https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/62440
Kalliovaara, J., Jokela, T., Kokkinen, H., Paavola, J., & Moghaddam, S. S. (2018). Licensed shared access evolution to provide exclusive and dynamic shared spectrum access for novel 5G use cases. In Cognitive Radio in 4G/5G Wireless Communication Systems. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.79553
Kibria, M. G., Villardi, G. P., Ishizu, K., Kojima, F., & Yano, H. (2016). Resource allocation in shared spectrum access communications for operators with diverse service requirements. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2016(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13634-016-0381-8
Kułacz, Ł., Kryszkiewicz, P., Kliks, A., Bogucka, H., Ojaniemi, J., Paavola, J., Kalliovaara, J., & Kokkinen, H. (2019). Coordinated Spectrum Allocation and Coexistence Management in CBRS-SAS Wireless Networks. IEEE Access, 7, 139294–139316. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2940448
Massaro, M., & Beltrán, F. (2020). Will 5G lead to more spectrum sharing? Discussing recent developments of the LSA and the CBRS spectrum sharing frameworks. Telecommunications Policy, 44(7), 101973. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2020.101973
Matheson, R., & Morris, A. C. (2012). The technical basis for spectrum rights: Policies to enhance market efficiency. Telecommunications Policy, 36(9), 783–792. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2012.05.006
Medeisis, A., & Holland, O. (2014). Cognitive radio policy and regulation. Springer.
Moghaddam, S. S. (2018). Cognitive Radio in 4G/5G Wireless Communication Systems. BoD–Books on Demand.
MoIT [Ministry of Information Technology & Telecommunication]. (2022). https://moitt.gov.pk/
Mueck, M., Pérez Guirao, M. D., Yallapragada, R., & Srikanteswara, S. (2020). Regulation and Standardization Activities Related to Spectrum Sharing. In Spectrum Sharing: The Next Frontier in Wireless Networks, IEEE, 2019, 17–33. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119551539.ch2
Nurelmadina, N., Hasan, M. K., Memon, I., Saeed, R. A., Zainol Ariffin, K. A., Ali, E. S., Mokhtar, R. A., Islam, S., Hossain, E., & Hassan, M. A. (2021). A Systematic Review on Cognitive Radio in Low Power Wide Area Network for Industrial IoT Applications. Sustainability, 13(1), 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010338
Parvini, M., Zarif, A. H., Nouruzi, A., Mokari, N., Javan, M. R., Abbasi, B., Ghasemi, A., & Yanikomeroglu, H. (2022). A Comprehensive Survey of Spectrum Sharing Schemes from a Standardization and Implementation Perspective. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:2203.11125.
Popoola, J. J., Ogunlana, O. A., Ajie, F. O., Olakunle, O., Akiogbe, O. A., Ani-Initi, S. M., & Omotola, S. K. (2016). Dynamic spectrum access: A new paradigm of converting radio spectrum wastage to wealth. International Journal of Engineering Technologies, 2(3), 124–131. https://doi.org/10.19072/ijet.259396
Prasad, R., & Sridhar, V. (2013). Moving from command and control to flexible useand to a spectrum commons. Available at https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/88535/1/774539895.pdf
Prasad, R., Sridhar, V., & Bunel, A. (2016). An Institutional Analysis of Spectrum Management in India. Journal of Information Policy, 6(1), 252–293. https://doi.org/10.5325/jinfopoli.6.2016.252
PTA [Pakistan Telecommunication Authority]. (2018). Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Issuance of Amateur Radio License. PTA. Available at https://www.pta.gov.pk/assets/media/sop_amateur_131118.pdf
PTA [Pakistan Telecommunication Authority]. (2022a). https://www.pta.gov.pk/en
PTA [Pakistan Telecommunication Authority]. (2022b). Regulatory Framework for Short Range Devices (SRD) & Terrestrial Internet of Things (IoT)Services. Available at https://www.pta.gov.pk/assets/media/iot_srd_regulatory_framework_01-06-2022.pdf
Radio spectrum: A key resource for the Digital Single Market. (2015, April 8). Epthinktank. https://epthinktank.eu/2015/04/08/radio-spectrum-a-key-resource-for-the-digital-single-market/
Saha, R. K. (2021). Spectrum allocation and reuse in 5G new radio on licensed and unlicensed millimeter-wave bands in indoor environments. Mobile Information Systems, 2021, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5538820
Shaukat, A. (2015). Spectrum Sharing Framework. Available at https://www.pta.gov.pk/en/media-center/single-media/consultation-spectrum-sharing-framework-060418
Singh, K. K., Singh, A., Cengiz, K., & Le, D.-N. (2020). Machine Learning and Cognitive Computing for Mobile Communications and Wireless Networks. Wiley: USA.
Song, M., Xin, C., Zhao, Y., & Cheng, X. (2012). Dynamic spectrum access: From cognitive radio to network radio. IEEE Wireless Communications, 19(1), 23–29. https://doi.org/10.1109/MWC.2012.6155873
Swamy, S. V., Srinivasan, G. N., & Rashmi, R. (2020). Study of Redundancy with Domain Proxy for Citizen Broadband Radio Service in 5G Network. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA), 875–880. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIRCA48905.2020.9182901
The global solution for unpaired spectrum. (2014). Qualcomm. https://www.qualcomm.com/media/documents/files/lte-tdd-the-global-solution-for-unpaired-spectrum.pdf
Yrjölä, S., Ahokangas, P., & Matinmikko, M. (2015). Evaluation of recent spectrum sharing concepts from business model scalability point of view. 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN), 241–250. https://doi.org/10.1109/DySPAN.2015.7343907
Yrjölä, S., & Kokkinen, H. (2017). Licensed Shared Access evolution enables early access to 5G spectrum and novel use cases. EAI Endorsed Transactions on Wireless Spectrum, 3(12). https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.12-12-2017.153463